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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

Antonio Paoli12*, Keith Grimaldi3, Dominic D’Agostino4, Lorenzo Cenci5, Tatiana Moro1, Antonino Bianco6 and Antonio Palma6

Author Affiliations

1 Physiological Laboratory – Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

2 Human Movement Sciences School, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

3 Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

4 Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Physiology College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

5 Tisanoreica Study Center, Lonigo, Vicenza, Italy

6 Department of Sports and Exercise Science (DISMOT), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012, 9:34  doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-34

Published: 26 July 2012

Abstract

Background

Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance.

Methods

8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used.

Results

No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass.

Conclusions

Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a relatively short time period (i.e. 30 days) can decrease body weight and body fat without negative effects on strength performance in high level athletes.

Keywords:
Very low carbohydrate Ketogenic diet; Body composition; Weight loss; Strength; Gymnastic