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International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

Erica R Goldstein1, Tim Ziegenfuss2, Doug Kalman3, Richard Kreider4, Bill Campbell5, Colin Wilborn6, Lem Taylor6, Darryn Willoughby7, Jeff Stout8, B Sue Graves1, Robert Wildman9, John L Ivy10, Marie Spano11, Abbie E Smith8 and Jose Antonio12*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA

2 The Center for Applied Health Sciences, Division of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Science, 3624 West Market Street, STE 104, Fairlawn, OH 44333, USA

3 MRA Clinical Research, 6280 Sunset Drive #600, Miami, FL 33143, USA

4 Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA

5 University of South Florida, School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, Tampa, FL 33620, USA

6 University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, USA

7 Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Baylor University, Box 97313, Waco, TX 76798, USA

8 Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA

9 Department of Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

10 Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, the University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA

11 International Society of Sports Nutrition, 600 Pembrook Drive, Woodland Park, CO 80863, USA

12 Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale-Davie, FL 33314, USA

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010, 7:5  doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-5

Published: 27 January 2010

Abstract

Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3.) It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4.) Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5.) Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6.) The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7.) The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.