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Effects of chocolate milk consumption on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study

Stephanie F Gilson1, Michael J Saunders1*, Charles W Moran1, Rebecca W Moore2, Christopher J Womack1 and M Kent Todd1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Kinesiology, MSC 2302, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA

2 Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, 134 Intramural Sports Circle, East Lansing MI 48824-1034, USA

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010, 7:19  doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-19

Published: 18 May 2010



The efficacy of chocolate milk (CM) as a recovery beverage following a period of increased training duration (ITD) was studied in intercollegiate soccer players.


13 subjects completed one week of normal 'baseline' training followed by four days of ITD. After each day of ITD, subjects received either a high-carbohydrate (504 kcal; CHO: 122 g; 2 g Fat) or isocaloric CM (504 kcal; 84 g CHO; 28 g Pro; 7 g Fat) recovery beverage. Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), muscle soreness, fatigue ratings and isometric quadriceps force (MVC) were obtained prior to ITD, and following 2- and 4-days of ITD. Performance tests (T-drill, vertical jump) were performed within training sessions. Treatments were administered in a randomly counterbalanced protocol, and subjects repeated the procedures with the alternate beverage following a two-week washout period.


Mean daily training time and HR increased (p < 0.05) between baseline training and ITD, with no differences between treatments. No treatment*time effects were observed for Mb, muscle soreness, fatigue ratings and MVC. However, serum CK was significantly lower (p < 0.05) following four days of ITD with CM (316.9 ± 188.3 U·L-1) compared to CHO (431.6 ± 310.8 U·L-1). No treatment differences were observed for the performance tests.


Post-exercise CM provided similar muscle recovery responses to an isocaloric CHO beverage during four-days of ITD. Future studies should investigate if the attenuated CK levels observed with CM have functional significance during more demanding periods of training.